Proteomics technology is an approach of science to understand the expression of the whole set of proteins and its function at the cellular level. Its role in cancer research becomes more significant nowadays. For these past few years, we can see the trend changes omics technologies from genomics and epigenomics to transcriptomics and finally to proteomics now.
Proteomics enables the researchers to look into the proteins level of the cancer cells. As we all know, proteins are the physiological and pathological indispensible players. The interaction between gene expression at mRNA and protein level is complex in many kind of diseases especially in cancer.
Proteomics allows the researchers to do the quantitative investigations for both cellular protein expression levels and protein–protein interactions that related in various signaling networks. By using the high-throughput proteomics technology, we can observe the protein expression pattern in tumor cells. This can help us to find out the potential cancer biomarkers. Therefore, the researchers started to put interest on proteomics approach to foster an improved understanding of cancer pathogenesis in order to produce the new cancer biomarkers for diagnosis and early detection by using the functional proteomic signatures.
The proteome analysis is progressively improved. Various of different proteomics tools like 2-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis, protein microarray, mass spectrometry platforms that include matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization, electrospray ionization, surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization, isotope-coded affinity tag, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification. Furthermore, the multidimensional protein identification approach has been used for differential analysis of biological samples.
Moreover, the oncoproteomics technology has the great potential to revolutionize clinical practice such as early cancer diagnosis and screening. This can be done by referring to the proteomic portraits as a complement to histopathology, individualized selection of therapeutic combinations that target entire cancer-specific protein network, real-time assessment of therapeutic efficacy and toxicity, and rational modulation of therapy based on changes in the cancer protein network associated with prognosis and drug resistance.
In conclusion, proteomics has the great potential to be one of the most powerful tools for cancer research. It can help in cancer diagnosis and also therapy designing.